Women in general need to be educated on Hormone Replacement Therapy.

Indications for the use of Hormone Therapy include the following situations related to menopause:

– relief of vasomotor symptoms (hot flushes, sweating)

– relief of joint and muscle aches and pains+

– relief of sleeplessness and other sleep disturbances+

– relief of depressed mood

– relief of urogenital symptoms (vaginal dryness)

– relief of sexual dysfunction, such as decrease libido

– maintaining and improvement of quality of life.

(+ commonest complaints in Asian postmenopausal  women)

– As a prevention for bone loss and fractures in postmenopausal  women

Contraindications to Hormone Therapy include:

– history of breast cancer

– history of thromboembolism and stroke

– undiagnosed uterine bleeding

– significant cardiovascular disease

– hypersensitivity to oestrogen


Best start between 50-59 years or within 10 years of menopause


Lowest effective dose of estrogen with corresponding low dose of progestogen.

(Source: Clinical Practice Guidelines AMM, MOH + CO&GM)