1. Women outweigh men twofold higher prevalence of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

2. Reason: (i) report-bias because men tend to underreport and women tend to overreport symptoms (ii) social expectancy with regards to their gender role where women are expected to be vulnerable and men more resilient to trauma.

3. The way it goes is if women are exposed during menopausal period, they show increase cardiovascular and epinephrine response to mental stress compared to premenopausal age.

4. Men are different creatures. They begin in the late teens last to the early 40s. This is the time where men are tied up with work and family responsibilities. Life therefore become less autonomy and they could develop more stress resulting in midlife crisis.

5. After 50s, women tend to be less likely at risk for PTSD but man settled down after 40s. The lowest risk is found for men in their 60s. Perhaps at this age, they would already accept their earlier experiences well and death is more imminent than the earlier age. This is also the time to spent time for quiet reflection and looking back at experiences with wisdom and dignity.

6. Looking at the data, it is shown that life span distribution of PTSD is different for men and women and women show a higher prevalence of PTSD than men.

[Annals of General Psychiatry]

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